开启辅助访问

万千宠爱

 找回密码
 立即注册

扫一扫,访问微社区

新浪微博登陆

只需一步, 快速开始

搜索
热搜: 活动 交友 discuz
万千宠爱 新闻中心 英文新闻 查看内容

The Deeper This Purple Octopus Lives, The Bumpier Its Skin

2019-10-25 21:32| 发布者: hujian| 查看: 23| 评论: 0

摘要:   Deep in the Pacific Ocean, pale purple octopuses with giant cartoon eyes roam the seafloor. Some are covered with pronounced bumps, and others look like they have nearly smooth skin, a puzzle that ...

  


Deep in the Pacific Ocean, pale purple octopuses with giant cartoon eyes roam the seafloor. Some are covered with pronounced bumps, and others look like they have nearly smooth skin, a puzzle that has long confused scientists. Are these animals with different appearances actually the same species?

  The answer is yes, according to a new study—which also revealed that the wartier the octopus, the deeper it lives, says study leader Janet Voight, associate curator of invertebrate zoology at the Field Museum in Chicago.

  Not only that, but the team also found that the bumpiest Pacific warty octopuses (Graneledone pacifica), which can live up to 2.7 kilometres deep, are about the>

[video]https://www.youtube.com/embed/C6riDdXCLak[/video]

  WATCH A VIDEO OF THE PACIFIC WARTY OCTOPUS

  That’s surprising, especially because it doesn’t fit with a biological phenomenon called deep-sea gigantism, in which living at greater depths yields larger animals. As the theory goes, colder water temperatures increase cell>

  But for these octopuses, it's possible their smaller>FollowPhotosMESMERISING PICTURES OF COLOURFUL OCTOPUSESloading...

  • +15
  • +14
  • +13
  • +12
  • +11
  • +10
  • +9
  • +8
  • +7

  The southern keeled octopus, found in the shallow coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, often hides in the sand.

  PHOTOGRAPH BY DAVID LIITTSCHWAGER, NAT GEO IMAGE COLLECTION

  It’s also possible octopus females with limited diets produce smaller eggs, which in turn leads to more petite adults.

  It's also unknown why they're warty, Voight says—illustrating how much is left to discover in the oceans, which make up 71 per cent of our planet yet remain little studied.

Location, location, location

  For the research, Voight collected eight octopuses off the U.S. West Coast using remotely operated vehicles and ALVIN, a human-occupied submersible vehicle. Preserved specimens, including from the Field Museum, brought the total to 50 individuals. Voight and colleagues then studied the animals' physical structures, including their arm suckers, warts, and tubercles, or little bumps inside the warts that give them texture.

  Once the animals' body structures were catalogued, sophisticated 3-D computer analysis concluded that depth is what determines whether the octopuses are more smooth or more warty. Further DNA testing confirmed that both types of octopuses are indeed the same species, according to the study, published today in the Bulletin of Marine Science.

  Jennifer Mather, an octopus expert at Lethbridge University in Alberta, was impressed by the number of specimens studied. Octopuses are famously good at hiding, and finding them requires complicated equipment, particularly in the deep sea. (Read about the world’s largest deep-sea octopus nursery.)

  A particularly warty example of the>Graneledone verrucosa.

  PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY NOAA

  Dedication helps, too. “Dr. Voight’s patience was very much rewarded,” says Mather, who wasn’t involved in the research.

  She adds that some shallow-dwelling octopuses can form temporary bumps if camouflaging their bodies to a bumpy surface, which some thought was the case with Pacific warty octopuses. But by studying live and dead animals, Voight confirmed their “skin sculpture” is defined at birth.

Warty ancestors?

FollowVideoOctopuses 101How many hearts does an octopus have? How do species like the mimic octopus camouflage themselves? Find out about these and other octopus facts.loading...

  How many hearts does an octopus have? How do species like the mimic octopus camouflage themselves? Find out about these and other octopus facts.

  The purpose of the warts are unknown, though all species of the genus Graneledone have warts. It’s possible that wartiness is a vestigial trait, "so all members of the group have it, regardless of whether it provides a current benefit," Voight says.

  Why the invertebrates get smaller and wartier with depth is Voight’s next mission. For instance, she wants to look inside the warts for clues: The “what” may lead to the “why,” she says.

  Overall, her study is part of an ongoing effort to decipher how life can thrive so far down in the dark, food-scarce ocean, she adds.

  “How do they live in the deep sea? I think that's what all deep-sea biologists really want to know,” says Voight.

Lead Image: Graneledone verrucosa, the Atlantic cousin of the Pacific warty octopus, is seen off the northeastern U.S. coast in 2013. All Graneledone species have warts, but some are smoother than others.

  PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY NOAA



鲜花

握手

雷人

路过

鸡蛋

相关分类

QQ|小黑屋|Archiver|手机版|万千宠爱  

GMT-6, 2019-11-13 07:03 , Processed in 1.617279 second(s), 19 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

返回顶部